Social Security Law in India

Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme: Paid to widows aged 40 and over. Maternity allowance (Janani Suraksha Yojana, social assistance, subject to income): paid to needy women aged 19 and over who give birth in a public health institution. Social security refers to measures to protect workers to provide health care and income security in the event of certain contingencies such as old age, maternity or accident. In India, social security systems are designed according to various laws depending on the size of the institution, the type of employment, the employee`s income or the income status of the employee`s household. These plans are administered by a combination of contributory plans (funded by the government, employer or employee), publicly funded social assistance programs or employer-sponsored liability plans. The NCL found that existing social security systems have limited coverage and different applicability depending on the class of establishment, the number of employees and salary ceilings. He recommended integrating these systems, extending coverage to all workers, and decentralizing delivery machines. Rules for new labour laws on industrial relations, social security and occupational safety, health and safety (OSH) are expected to be finalised by the end of January, according to Labour Minister Apurva Chandra. If so, it could lead to the implementation of the labour legislation by 1 April 2021 – that was the deadline set by the Ministry of Labour. However, this timeline may change, depending on interventions by key stakeholders and lobby groups and other needs, such as the impact of the ongoing pandemic. The ESI program provides benefits to both workers and their dependents in the event of unfortunate unforeseen events at work. Under the ESI Act, workers or employees of the above-mentioned categories earning a salary of up to INR 21,000 per month (up to INR 25,000 per month in the case of a disabled person) are entitled to this social security scheme.

Unemployment benefit (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee [MGNREGA], social assistance): A member of the household must voluntarily perform unskilled manual work in skilled rural areas. In this article, we will discuss each of these social insurances as well as their coverage, contribution rates, and the laws and regulations that underpin them. The threshold for the applicability of the various social security systems is set out in the first schedule of the bill. For example, the Employee Provident Fund applies to any facility with 20 or more employees. The bill authorizes the central government to change this timetable. Therefore, the threshold for the applicability of social security systems can be changed by the government by notification. Note that under existing laws, this power can only be exercised through amendments passed by the state legislature or legislature. The question arises as to whether the power to set such thresholds should remain in the hands of the legislature, whether it should be delegated to the government. The Standing Committee on Labour (2020) also noted that the Bill delegates various aspects to the development of rules by the government, particularly with respect to the definition of rights, benefits and contributions under the Act.

[3] He proposed that the Ministry review all such delegation cases in the Bill. Maternity allowance (Janani Suraksha Yojana, social assistance, subject to income): Depending on the geographical area, a lump sum of Rs 600 to Rs 1,400 is paid. The grant is limited to two live births in states classified as high performers. Third, the bill continues to maintain the existing fragmented structure for the provision of social security benefits. These include: (i) a central board of directors to manage the EPF, EPS and EDLI systems, (ii) a public insurance company for employees to administer the ESI system, (iii) national and state social security committees to administer schemes for non-unionized workers, and (iv) transition-based labour welfare boards for construction workers. Note that gig economy workers are generally classified as independent contractors and therefore do not enjoy labor protection, including social security benefits. [7] The Code does not specify how the role of third parties (e.g. digital intermediaries) will be determined in determining their liability in gig and platform funding schemes.

Around the world, some regions have established principles to identify industrial relationships that can be disguised and wrongly classified as independent contract work. For example, in 2019, the State of California passed a law classifying certain independent contractors as employees and granting them certain benefits, such as health insurance, if the hiring company fails to prove that: (i) the person`s duties are outside the normal course of business of the business, (ii) the company does not exercise control over the manner, (iii) the person habitually engages in a profession of the same type as the work performed. [8] The European Union has also adopted directives recognising the rights of people in certain non-standard forms of employment, such as platform work, when they work on average more than three hours per week over a four-week period. [9] First, the Bill maintains thresholds based on the size of the establishment in order to make certain benefits mandatory. Benefits such as pension and health insurance will continue to be mandatory only for companies with a minimum number of employees (e.g. 10 or 20 employees). All other categories of workers (i.e. non-unionised workers), such as those working in establishments with fewer than 10 employees, and the self-employed may be covered by discretionary schemes notified by the public authorities. This is similar to the current system where non-unionized workers are subject to a different law (included in the bill) under which voluntary plans for these workers are declared. [5] A large number of workers can still be excluded. Note that the report of the Periodic Labour Force Survey (2017-18) shows that 71% of regular/white-collar employees in the non-agricultural sector did not have a written contract and 50% did not receive social security benefits. [6] The Employees` State Insurance Corporation (, which is governed by a tripartite board of directors and a managing director, collects contributions and administers the social security program through regional and local offices.

Medical care is provided in various states by social security pharmacies and hospitals, government departments or contract doctors. Benefits include outpatient treatment, specialist consultations, hospitalization, surgery and obstetric care, imaging and laboratory services, and transportation. Medicines, bandages, prostheses, aids and aids are provided free of charge. unemployment benefit (Rajiv Gandhi Shramik Kalyan Yojana [RGSKY], social security): 50% of the insured person`s average daily wage in the two years preceding unemployment payment for a maximum period of one year; 25% for another year. The applicability of compulsory social security contributions varies. Some social security schemes require employer contributions from all enterprises, others from enterprises with at least ten or more employees, and others from enterprises with twenty or more employees. In accordance with the Constitution of India and the ILO Social Security Convention1 (ratified by India in 1964), some of the laws enacted for social security are the Employees` Insurance Act, 1948, the Employment Injuries Act, 1923, the Employees` Provident Fund Act, 1952 and various provisions, the Maternity Benefits Act 1961, the Payment of Gratuities Act 1972, etc. A social security department has also been established within the Ministry of Labour and Employment, which focuses mainly on the development of social security policy for workers in the organized sector. In addition to the above-mentioned decrees, the government has made efforts over the past decade to extend benefits to the disorganized sector. Examples include laws such as the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act of 2005, the Social Security for Workers in the Disorganized Sector Act of 2008 and the Domestic Workers (Registration, Social Security and Welfare) Act of 2008. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act of 2005 aims to reduce unemployment or unproductive employment in rural areas.

It focuses on improving the livelihoods of the rural population by ensuring productive wage employment for at least 100 days a year. The budget budget has also increased allowances for its NREGA job guarantee programme by 144% this year, and beneficiaries of the scheme would also be entitled to a minimum wage of Rs. 100 per day.2 There is also the Social Security for Non-Union Workers Act 2008, which aims to extend social security measures to non-unionised workers. The law therefore aims to extend informal sector workers and similar benefits to formal sector workers to informal sector workers. The 2008 Domestic Workers Act was enacted in the same way. The legislation aims to regulate the remuneration and working conditions of domestic workers and entitles every registered domestic worker to a pension, maternity benefits and paid leave, which is paid weekly leave. Attention should be paid to this legislation for workers in the organized and unorganized sector, as it will help to improve their productivity and industrial relations, thus ensuring the development of the country. Note: Employers who hire low-income workers without prior membership in the pension fund program can participate in the Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY) program.
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