While recognition of de facto slavery is not lacking in the decisions of international tribunals around the world, the extent to which this understanding is reflected in national laws has not been clear so far. The last systematic attempt to collect national slavery laws was published more than 50 years ago, in 1966. In India, most enslaved servants are Dalits (untouchables) and Adivasis (members of indigenous tribes).  Puspal, a former brickyard worker in Punjab, India, said in an interview with antislavery.org; “We don`t stop, even if we`re sick – what if our debt goes up? So we dare not stop.  In India, the price of slaves relative to the price of land, paid labor or oxen is currently 95% lower than in the past. As this story shows, slavery revolves around control. Control of a person of such intensity as free will, personal freedom, or a person`s freedom is denied. With regard to slavery, this global control is usually established by violence: it effectively requires that a person`s will be broken. This control does not have to be exercised by the courts, but can be exercised by slaveholders operating outside the legal framework. In the case of Mauritania, legal slavery has been abolished since 1981. Signs that a person has been forced into slavery include lack of identity documents, lack of personal belongings, inappropriate or poorly worn clothing, poor living conditions, reluctance, eye contact, refusal to speak and refusal to ask for help. In the UK, people are encouraged to report their suspicions to a modern slavery helpline.
 Because of this remarkably late consensus on what slavery means in a post-abolition world, only very specific practices related to severe human exploitation are currently covered by national laws around the world – primarily human trafficking. And while most countries have anti-trafficking laws in place (our database shows that 93% of states have criminal laws against human trafficking in one form or another), human trafficking legislation does not prohibit several other forms of human exploitation. including slavery itself. Once this control is established, other powers that are understood in the context of ownership come into play: buying or selling a person, using or managing it, or even disposing of it. Thus, slavery can exist without legal property if a person acts as if he or she were owning the slave person. This de facto slavery continues to this day on a large scale. In 1994, Mende Nazer was captured as a child after a militia raid on her village in Sudan. She was beaten and sexually abused, then sold as a domestic slave to a family in the Sudanese capital Khartoum. As a young adult, she was transferred to the family of a diplomat in Britain and eventually fled in 2002. Slavery is often characterized as an archaic and inhumane practice of the past. But this is not the case, as much as we would like. Slavery is still a sad reality in which millions of people are trapped.
In 2016, the Global Slavery Index counted 45.8 million slaves in 167 countries, with one in four victims being a child. Nevertheless, progress has been made; Earlier this month, courts in Mauritania, a West African country where slavery is a persistent problem, sentenced two slave owners to 10 and 20 years in prison, the country`s harshest sentence against slavery to date, Reuters reports. An estimated 40 million people are trapped in modern slavery, including 1 in 4 children.  In addition, 71% of modern slaves are women, with an estimated 10,000 potential victims of modern slavery in Britain.  The results stem from the development of an anti-slavery database that aligns national legislation with the international treaty obligations of the 193 UN member states (virtually every country in the world). The database takes into account each country`s national legislation, as well as binding commitments they have made through international treaties to prohibit forms of human exploitation that fall under the umbrella term “modern slavery”. These include forced labour, human trafficking, institutions and practices similar to slavery, serfdom, the slave trade and slavery itself. Human trafficking is defined in international law, but other collective terms such as “modern slavery” are not. In international law, trafficking in human beings has three elements: the act (recruitment, transport, transfer, harbouring or receipt of the person); the use of coercion to facilitate this act; and the intent to exploit that person. The crime of trafficking in human beings presupposes that all three elements are present.
The continuation of exploitation itself – whether forced labour or slavery – would require specific national legislation going beyond anti-trafficking provisions. Modern slavery can be very profitable, and corrupt governments tacitly allow it, even though it is prohibited by international treaties such as the Supplementary Convention for the Abolition of Slavery and local laws. The total annual revenues of traffickers were estimated at more than $150 billion in 2014, although the profits are much smaller.