Philippine Legal System under Our Present Constitution

The salaries of senators and members of the Chamber of Deputies shall be determined by law. An increase in this allowance will not take effect until all members of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies have approved this increase for the full duration of the mandate. The Public Service Commission, as the central agency of government personnel, establishes a career service and takes steps to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressivity and courtesy in the public service. It aims to strengthen the performance and reward system, integrate all human resources development programmes for all levels and grades, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability. It submits an annual report to the President and Congress on its human resources programs. However, unlike the 1935 and 1973 constitutions, the 1987 constitution defines the concept of judicial power. According to article VIII, paragraph 2, of section 1, “judicial power” includes not only “the obligation of the courts to settle real disputes concerning legally enforceable and enforceable rights”, but also “to determine whether there has been a serious abuse of power amounting to lack of or excessive jurisdiction on the part of a branch or instrument of government”. The latter provision dilutes the effectiveness of the doctrine of the “political question”, which exempts from judicial review certain questions that are best submitted to the political wisdom of the people. In the event of the death, permanent incapacity, dismissal or resignation of the President, the Vice-President shall become President for the remainder of the term which has not yet expired.

In the event of death, permanent incapacity, impeachment or resignation of the President and Vice-President, the President of the Senate or, in case of incapacity, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall act as President until the President or Vice President is elected and qualified. 2. Public funds or property shall not be allocated, used, paid for or used, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution or religious system, or of a priest, preacher, pastor or other religious teacher or dignitary as such, unless such priest, Preacher, minister or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces. or a penitentiary, state orphanage or leper colony. 5. No law authorizing transfers may be promulgated; However, the President, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President of the Supreme Court and the heads of constitutional committees may be authorized by law to supplement each element of the General Allocation Act for their respective offices by making savings on other items in their respective resources. 2. Establish and maintain a system of free public education in primary and secondary schools. Without restricting the inherent right of parents to raise their children, primary education is compulsory for all children of school age.

If no president and vice president have been elected or qualified, or if both are dead or permanently disabled, the president of the Senate or, if unable to attend, the speaker of the House of Representatives, shall act as president until a president or vice president is elected and qualified. The Congress establishes a National Language Commission, composed of representatives from different regions and disciplines, to conduct, coordinate and promote research on the development, dissemination and preservation of Filipino and other languages. The current Tanodbayan is hereinafter referred to as the Office of the Special Prosecutor. He shall continue to exercise his functions and powers as currently or subsequently provided for by law, with the exception of those conferred on the office of Ombudsman established by this Constitution. In the Philippines, judicial power, including the obligation to resolve disputes over legally enforceable rights, rests with the Supreme Court and lower courts, which may be established by law. The Supreme Court of the Philippines consists of a Chief Justice and 14 associate justices, similar to the Supreme Court of the United States. The state establishes and maintains an effective regulatory system for food and drugs, and conducts appropriate research on health workers that meet the country`s health needs and problems. (1) There shall be established a Council of the Judiciary and the Bar Association, under the authority of the Supreme Court, composed of the President of the Supreme Court, as ex officio President, the Secretary of Justice and a representative of Congress as ex officio members, a representative of the Integrated Bar Association, a professor of law, a retired member of the Supreme Court and a representative of the private sector. Congress provides a system to ensure the secrecy and sanctity of voting, as well as a mail-in voting system for qualified Filipinos abroad.

The judiciary includes the duty of courts to resolve actual disputes concerning legally enforceable and enforceable rights and to determine whether there has been a serious abuse of power amounting to a lack of or excessive competence on the part of any branch or instrument of government. (1) The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the educational system, public or private cultural institutions, scholarships, subsidies and other incentives, as well as municipal cultural centres and other public institutions. Political parties, organizations or coalitions registered under the party list system are not represented in voter registration bodies, election inspectors` committees, candidate committees or similar bodies. However, they have the right to appoint election observers in accordance with the law. 1. The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and exercises adequate supervision and regulation of all educational institutions, until Congress decides otherwise, the President shall receive an annual salary of three hundred thousand pesos; the Vice-President, the President of the Senate, the President of the House of Representatives and the President of the Supreme Court, each two hundred and forty thousand pesos; senators, members of the House of Representatives, associate judges of the Supreme Court and the chairman of constitutional commissions each receive two hundred and four thousand pesos; and the members of the constitutional commissions, one hundred and eighty thousand pesos each.

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